Probably the best way to cut costs out of your transportation is to hitchhike. Despite what many people believe. It’s not dangerous at all. I’ve done my fair share of hitchhiking and I’ve never run into any problems. The most dangerous part about it is getting in an accident when you are picked up by a careless driver. But the roads are full of those so even if you do get picked up by a safe driver, it’s still a risk. But don’t worry. It just adds to the adventure.
If hitchhiking is not an option for you. Use public transport. It’s not free though but like I said. The more fussy you get, the more it’s gonna cost you. It’s still really cheap most of the time and there might be places where its your only option. On the other hand. Public transport can sometimes be more dangerous than hitchhiking. Especially in places like Africa and South America. Many vehicles are hardly in a roadworthy condition and most of the time they get overloaded to the max.
Another thing I’ve seen quite often is people that’s driving to another town for personal reasons and they ask around if anyone wants a ride. They also charge you, about the same price as the public transport usually, but it might be a safer option if you’re not into the whole overloaded-falling-apart-taxi kind of thing.
I’m not even going to talk about private transport. It’s not even an option if you wish to travel free or cheap. And if you really really don’t want to do any of the above and still want to travel for free. Get yourself a pair of hiking boots and start walking. I’ve also done my fair share of walking and it can be fun sometimes but not so much when the scorching African sun burns down on you and you only have another 50 km of mountain pass to walk. You’ll have your thumb in the air before you know it…